1. Bita Amani, Caroline Ncube and Matthew Rimmer (ed.s) Elgar Companion to Intellectual Property and the Sustainable Development Goals, (2023) Edward Elgar  – forthcoming
  2. Caroline B Ncube Intellectual Property Law in Africa: Harmonising Administration and Policy (2023) 2nd edition, Routledge 
  3. Danwood Chirwa and Caroline B Ncube (ed.s) The Internet, Development, Human Rights and the Law in Africa (2023) Routledge
  4. Caroline B Ncube Science, Technology & Innovation and Intellectual Property: Leveraging Openness for Sustainable
    Development in Africa
    (2021) Juta see SARChI IP, Innovation and Development Publication Highlights 1/2021
  5. Caroline B Ncube Intellectual Property Policy, Law and Administration in Africa: Exploring Continental and Sub-regional Co-operation (2016) Routledge (see poster summary here) [reviewed by Susan Isiko Štrba here]
  6. Caroline B Ncube and Elmien WJ  Plessis (ed.s) Indigenous Knowledge & Intellectual Property (2016) Juta (co-edited with) [reviewed by Louis Rood here]

Book chapters


  1. Ncube, C.B. ‘The Internet, Freedom of Expression and Intellectual Property’ in Chirwa, D and Ncube C.B. (ed.s) The Internet, Development, Human Rights and the Law in Africa (2023) Routledge 100 – 126 
  2. Chirwa, D and Ncube, C.B. ‘The Internet, Development and Human Rights in Africa: Introduction’ in Chirwa, D and Ncube C.B. (ed.s) The Internet, Development, Human Rights and the Law in Africa (2023) Routledge 1 – 22 
  3. Ncube, C.B. and Chirwa, D. ‘The Internet, Development and Human Rights in Africa: Reflections and Insights’ in Chirwa, D and Ncube C.B. (ed.s) The Internet, Development, Human Rights and the Law in Africa (2023) Routledge 217-227 
  4. Caroline B Ncube ‘Limiting Access to Life-Saving Medications: Three South African Case Studies’ in Enrico Bonadio and Aislinn O’Connell (ed.s) Intellectual Property Excesses: Exploring the Boundaries of IP Protection (2022) Hart 163 – 177
  5. Caroline B Ncube ‘ South Africa’s Three Decades of Access to Medicine Discourse: Blight or Benefit’ in Srividhya Ragavan and Amaka Vanni (ed.s) Intellectual Property Law and Access to Medicines TRIPS Agreement, Health, and Pharmaceuticals (2021) Routledge 235 – 251
  6. Caroline B Ncube ‘Intellectual Property and Openness: A Research Perspective and Agenda’ in Irene Calboli and Maria Lillà Montagnani (ed.s) Handbook of Intellectual Property Research : Lenses, Methods, and Perspectives (2021) Oxford University Press 700 – 713
  7. Caroline Ncube and Isaac Rutenberg ‘Intellectual property and Fourth Industrial Revolution technologies’ in  Z Mazibuko-Makena and E Kraemer-Mbula, E. (ed.s) Leap 4.0: African Perspectives on the Fourth Industrial Revolution (2020) MISTRA 393 – 416
  8. Jeremy de Beer, Chris Armstrong, Shirin Elahi, Dick Kawooya, Erika KramerMbula, Caroline Ncube, Chidi Oguamanam, Nagla Rizk, Isaac Rutenberg, and Tobias Schonwetter ‘Open Innovation in Africa: Current Realities, Future Scenarios, and Scalable Solutions’ in Matthew L. Smith and Ruhiya Kristine Seward (eds)Making Open Development Inclusive: Lessons from IDRC Research (2020) MIT Press, IDRC 403 – 430  Download full book
  9. Caroline Ncube, Tobias Schonwetter, Jeremy de Beer, Chidi Oguamanam ‘A principled approach to intellectual property rights and innovation in the African Continental Free Trade Agreement’ in David Luke and Jamie Macleod (eds), Inclusive Trade in Africa: The African Continental Free Trade Area in Comparative Perspective (2019) Routledge 177 – 194 [SSRN]
  10. Caroline B Ncube ‘Three Centuries and Counting: The Emergence and Development of Intellectual Property Law in Africa’ in Rochelle C Dreyfuss & Justine Pila (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Intellectual Property Law ( 2018) Oxford University Press 409 – 430
  11. Caroline B Ncube ‘Using Human Rights to Move Beyond Reformism to Radicalism: A2K for Schools, Libraries and Archives’ in Matthew Callahan and Jim Rogers (eds) A Critical Guide to Intellectual Property (2017) Zed Books 117- 143
  12. Caroline B Ncube ‘Calibrating Copyright for Creators and Consumers: Promoting Distributive Justice and Ubuntu’ in R. Giblin & K. Weatherall (eds.), What if We Could Reimagine Copyright?, Canberra: ANU Press, (2017) 253 – 280  – SSRN  – Publisher’s version
  13. Caroline B Ncube ‘Data Protection in Zimbabwe’ in Alex B Makulilo (ed) African Data Privacy Laws  (2016) Springer  99 – 116
  14. Caroline B Ncube ‘Intellectual Property protection of Traditional Knowledge and Access to Knowledge in South Africa’ in Matthew Rimmer (ed) Indigenous Intellectual Property: A Handbook of Contemporary Research (2015) Edward Elgar 543 – 564
  15. Caroline B Ncube and Eve Gray ‘South Africa & Zimbabwe: Silencing Critical Voices’ in Nagla Rizk, Carlos Affonso de Souza and Pranesh Parakesh (ed.s) Global Censorship: Shifting Modes, Persisting Paradigms (2015) Information Society Project, Yale Law School 53 – 64
  16. Caroline B Ncube ‘Fair is as fair does: Contractual normative regulation of copyright user contracts in South Africa’ in GB Dinwoodie (ed) Intellectual Property and General Legal Principles:Is IP a Lex Specialis? (2015) Edward Elgar 49–68
  17. Caroline B Ncube, Lucienne Abrahams and Titi Akinsanmi. ‘Effects of the South African IP Regime on Generating Value from Publicly Funded Research: An Exploratory Study of Two Universities’ in De Beer, J., Armstrong, C., Oguamanam, C. and Schonwetter, T. (eds.) (2013) Innovation and Intellectual Property: Collaborative Dynamics in Africa, University of Cape Town Press 282 – 315
  18. Caroline B Ncube and Debbie Collier-Reed  ‘Intellectual Property’ in Fouche M.A. (ed) Legal principles of contracts and commercial law 7ed (2012) LexisNexis Butterworths 289-306
  19. Caroline B Ncube ‘Electronic Commerce’ (original text by D. Collier-Reed).  In Fouche M.A. (ed) Legal principles of contracts and commercial law 7ed (2012)  LexisNexis Butterworths 307 – 314
  20. Caroline B Ncube ‘Software Patents’ in S. Papadous and S. Snail (eds). Cyberlaw III @ SA the law of the internet in South Africa 3ed (2012) Van Schaik Publishers 123-136
  21. Caroline B Ncube ‘Contracts of insurance’ in D. Collier and K.H. Lehmann (eds), Basic Principles of Business Law (2010) LexisNexis Butterworths 291 – 307
  22. Caroline B Ncube ‘Electronic commerce’ (original text by D. Collier-Reed) in D. Collier and K.H. Lehmann (eds), Basic Principles of Business Law (2010) LexisNexis Butterworths 515 – 524
  23. with Schonwetter and Chetty, P. ‘South Africa’ in C. Armstrong, J. de Beer, D. Kawooya, A. Prabhala and T. Schonwetter (eds), Access to Knowledge in Africa: The Role of Copyright (2010) . Claremont, CPT: UCT Press 231-280.
  24. With Schonwetter T & Chetty P ‘A2K in South Africa and Copyright Regulation’ in A. Rens and R Khan (eds) Access to Knowledge in South Africa (2009) The Information Society Project at Yale Law School, 10-52
  25.  Tobias Schonwetter, Caroline B Ncube and Pria Chetty ‘A2K in South Africa and the Copyright Context ‘ in A. Rens and R Khan (eds) Access to Knowledge in South Africa (2009) 53 – 112
  26. Corien Prins,  Caroline B Ncube and W Singaga ‘Social, ethical and legal issues’ in Satish Jha and Leon Strous (ed.s) IFIP WITFOR 2007: ICT for development and prosperity (2007) IFIP Press, 145 – 159
  27. Caroline B Ncube ‘South Africa’ in Prof M Blackeney (ed.) Border Control of Intellectual Property Rights Sweet and Maxwell (looseleaf publication first published 2003, updated annually till 2010).
  28. Caroline B Ncube ‘Zimbabwe’ in Prof M Blackeney (ed.) Border Control of Intellectual Property Rights Sweet and Maxwell (looseleaf publication first published 2003, updated annually till 2010)

Journal articles [peer reviewed]

  1. Caroline B Ncube ‘Moving from Mirages to Miracles: Intellectual Property, Human Rights and the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development‘ (2023) 72(7) GRUR International, 629–630
  2. Caroline B Ncube ‘When Human Rights Based Litigation Meets Copyright Reform: Blind SA v Minister of Trade, Industry and Competition’ [2023] 2 I.P.Q. 86 – 100 [subscriber access]
  3. Harpur, P., Stein, M.A. and Ncube, C.B. ‘South African Constitutional Court Prioritises Constitutional Right to Access Information by Print Disabled over Protected Copyright Interests’ (2023) 45(5) European Intellectual Property Review 299 – 305 [subscriber access]
  4. dos Santos , F., Ncube, C. B., & Ouma, M. (2022). Intellectual property framework responses to health emergencies – options for AfricaSouth African Journal of Science118(5/6).
  5. Ncube, C.B. (2022), ‘Intellectual property and the African continental free trade area: lessons and recommendations for the IP protocol‘  Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, 21(2) 105 -121.
  6. Oluseye Jegede and Caroline Ncube ‘Science, Technology, Innovation Management for Industrial Development in South Africa: Implications for the Fourth Industrial Revolution‘ (2021) 15(9) International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change 673 – 695
  7. Rachel Adams et al ‘POPIA Code of Conduct for Research (with corrigendum): Discussion Document’ (2021) 117(5/6) South African Journal of Science DOI:
  8. Caroline B Ncube, Blake E Reid and Desmond O Oriakhogba ‘Beyond the Marrakesh VIP Treaty: Typology of copyright access‐enabling provisions for persons with disabilities‘. J World Intellect Prop. 2020; 1– 17.
  9. Caroline B Ncube and Desmond O Oriakhogba ‘Monkey Selfie and Authorship in Copyright Law: The Nigerian and South African Perspectives’ PER / PELJ 2018(21) – DOI
  10. Jeremy De Beer, Jeremiah Baarbé and Caroline B Ncube ‘Evolution of Africa’s intellectual property treaty ratification landscape’ (2018) The African Journal of Information and Communication (AJIC), 22, 53-82.
  11. Caroline B Ncube ‘Online copyright infringement, techno-cultural creations and the copyright–technology nexus’, (2018) Int. J. Private Law, Vol. 9, Nos. 1/2, 19–31.
  12. Caroline B Ncube ‘The Creative Industry and South African Intellectual Property Law’ (2018) 11(2) Law and Development Review DOI:
  13. Caroline B Ncube ‘Decolonising Intellectual Property Law in Pursuit of Africa’s Development‘ (2016) 8(1)  WIPO Journal 34 – 40
  14. Caroline B Ncube ‘Recent Developments in African Regulation of Cybercrime: An Overview of Proposed Changes to the South African Framework’ (2016) 19(7) Journal of Internet Law 3 -20
  15. Caroline B Ncube ‘Location is everything, on and offline: the Fairhaven domain name dispute’ (2015) 10 (11) Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice 817- 818
  16. Caroline B Ncube ‘The politics of national intellectual property policy design and the provision of health services in South Africa’ (2015) 3 South African Intellectual Property Law Journal 15 – 39
  17. Caroline B Ncube ‘The draft national Intellectual Property Policy proposals for improving South Africa’s patent registration system: a review’ (2014) 9 (10) Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice 822-829
  18. Caroline B Ncube ‘Harnessing Intellectual Property for Development: Some Thoughts On An Appropriate Theoretical Framework’ (2013) 16(4) Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal 370 – 396
  19. Caroline B Ncube  ‘The Development of Intellectual Property Policies in Africa- Some Key Considerations and a Research Agenda‘ (2013) Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
  20. Caroline B Ncube and Eliamani Laltaika  ‘A  new intellectual property organization for Africa?’  (2013) 8(2) Journal of Intellectual Property Law and Practice  114 – 117
  21. Caroline B Ncube ‘Copyright Enforcement: The Graduated Response Takes Centre Stage’ ( 2012) 24(2) SA Mercantile Law Journal 133 – 147.
  22. Caroline B Ncube ‘Equitable Intellectual Property Protection of Computer Programs in South Africa: Some Proposals for Reform’ (2012) 3 Stellenbosch Law Review 438 – 461.
  23. Caroline B Ncube ‘Key copyright issues in African distance education: a South African case study’ (2011) Distance Education 32(2):269 – 275.
  24.  Tobias Schonwetter and Caroline B Ncube ‘New hope for Africa? Copyright and access to knowledge in the digital age’.  (2011) Info 13(3):64 – 74.
  25. Caroline B Ncube ‘You’re Fired! The Removal of Directors under the Companies Act 71 of 2008’ (2011) 128 South African Law Journal 33 – 51
  26. Caroline B Ncube ‘Transparency and accountability under the new company law (2010) Acta Juridica 43 – 72.
  27. Caroline B Ncube ‘When are complementary goods similar? Waterford Wedgewood PLC v Assembled Investments (Proprietary) Ltd’ (2010) 127(1) South African Law Journal 51 – 58.
  28. Caroline B Ncube ‘Enforcing Patent Rights against Goods in Transit: A New Threat to Trans-Border Trade in Generic Medicines‘ (2009) 21 SA Merc LJ 768
  29. Caroline B Ncube ‘Pre-incorporation contracts: statutory reform’ (2009) 2 SALJ 255
  30. Caroline B Ncube ‘Protecting business methods in South Africa and Zimbabwe’ (2008) 2 International Journal of Intellectual Property Management 1.
  31. Caroline B Ncube ‘A proposal to curb excessive executive remuneration’ 2006 (2)Speculum Juris 259
  32. Caroline B Ncube ‘Watching the watcher: recent developments in privacy regulation and cyber-surveillance in South Africa’ (2006) 3:4 SCRIPT-ed 344
  33. Caroline B Ncube ‘The legal regulation of identity theft in South Africa’ 2005 (1) Speculum Juris 119.
  34. Caroline B Ncube ‘Africa confronts cyber-crime’ 2004 (2) Speculum Juris 312.
  35. Caroline B Ncube ‘A comparative analysis of Zimbabwean and South African Data Protection Systems’, The Journal of Information, Law and Technology (JILT) 2004 (1)
  36. Caroline B Ncube ‘Copyright Protection of Computer Programs, Computer-Generated Works and Databases in Zimbabwe’, The Journal of Information, Law and Technology (JILT) 2002 (2)

Other publications 

  1. Hanani Hlomani and Caroline B. Ncube (2022) Data Regulation in Africa: Free Flow of Data, Open Data Regimes and Cyber Security African Economic Research Consortium (AERC)
  2. Beiter, K. D., Fiil-Flynn , S. M., Forere , M., Klaaren, J., Ncube, C., Nwauche, E., Rens, A., Samtani, S., & Schonwetter, T. (2022). Copyright Reform in South Africa: Two Joint Academic Opinions on the Copyright Amendment Bill [B13B 2017]Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal25, pp 1 – 45.
  3. Caroline B. Ncube (2021) Comments to the Portfolio Committee on Trade & Industry on the alignment of s19D CAB to the Marrakesh Treaty (see explanatory blog post)
  4. Caroline B Ncube (2021) Policy Brief: Intellectual Property (IP) and Trade in the African Continental Free Trade Area (AFCFTA) International Trade Centre (ITC)
  5. Caroline B Ncube [Book Review] ‘Daniel J Gervais (ed) The Future of Intellectual Property (2021)’ (2021) 138(3) South African Law Journal 686 – 691
  6. Caroline  B Ncube [Book Review] ‘Evana Wright Protecting Traditional Knowledge: Lessons from Global Case Studies’  (2020) 137(3) South African Law Journal 582-588
  7. Caroline B. Ncube’ Africa’s International Intellectual Property Law Regimes’ Oxford Bibliographies (January 2020) DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199796953-0198
  8. ‘Intellectual Property Protocol’ in United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, African Union, African Development Bank and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Assessing Regional Integration in Africa ARIA IX: next steps for the African Continental Free Trade Area. (2019) (chapter lead)
  9. Blake Reid and Caroline B Ncube Scoping Study on Access to Copyright Protected Works by Persons with Disabilities, WIPO Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights, World Intellectual Property Organization, SCCR/38/3 March 13, 2019  (Revision and expansion of SCCR35/3, 2017)
  10. Caroline B Ncube, Tobias Schonwetter, Jeremy de Beer and Chidi Oguamanam Intellectual Property Rights and Innovation: Assessing Regional Integration in Africa (ARIA VIII) (2017)
  11. Caroline B Ncube Study on Developing an Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Framework in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) 2016  
  12. Submission concerning the dti’s IP Consultative Framework, 2016 (with Yousuf Vawda, Brook Baker, Andrew Rens, Tobias Schonwetter & Achal Prabhala)
  13. Comments to Parliament on the Copyright Amendment Bill, 2015 (with Coenraad Visser, Tobias Schonwetter, Denise Nicholson, Andrew Rens, Peter Jaszi, Sean Flynn, Brandon Butler, Rebecca Tushnet & Jonathan Band)
  14. Caroline B Ncube Letter: Clarity on university’s copyright policy, Mail & Guardian, 20 March 2015
  15. Caroline B Ncube Op-ed: Time to get a reading on VIPs, Cape Times, 13 March 2015
  16. Caroline B Ncube Push to improve basic education, Cape Times, 6 May 2013
  17. Caroline B Ncube  Comments to Parliament on the draft Protection of Traditional Knowledge Bill, 2013 
  18. Caroline B Ncube ‘ACTA & Access to Learning Materials in Morocco: An Examination of How ACTA Impacts the Creation of a Moroccan Orphan Works Regime’ PIJIP Research Paper no. 2012-01. American University Washington College of Law, Washington, D.C. Available at
  19. Tobias Schonwetter, Caroline B Ncube and Pria Chetty ‘South Africa Country Report: African Copyright and Access to Knowledge (ACA2K) Project’ (2009) available at
  20. Tobias Schonwetter, Caroline B Ncube and Pria Chetty ‘South Africa Executive Policy Brief: ACA2K Project’ (2009) available at
  21. Caroline B Ncube ‘From the law reports: Laugh It Off Promotions CC v South African Breweries International (Finance) B V T/A Sabmark International’Codicillus 2005 (1) 82.
  22. Caroline B Ncube ‘The dignity of the office of the State President and the freedom of expression: Section 16 (2) (b) of the Public Order and Security Act of 2003 (Zimbabwe)’ Turf Law Review 2004 (1) 12.

PhD thesis

Intellectual property protection for e-commerce business methods in South Africa : envisioning an equitable model for SMEs in the tourism industry